Factors Affecting the Life of Electric Motors

We have several factors to consider that affect the life of electric motors, such as thermal, mechanical, electrical, environmental and poor maintenance. These factors change the temperature of the engine relative to the ambient temperature, because of internal losses.

The storage of the engine is also very important and should be suitable for preserving the quality of the engine that is still in stock, unused.

There are many indications of adjustments for the enormous diversity of thermal models, because of the different factors that damage the temperature variation of an engine.

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To determine the final temperature of the electric motor, the simplified thermal model will be applied, where the motor is considered a homogeneous body, and the absorbed energy is evenly supplied to the environment. At the beginning, the driven motor will have a temperature increase until reaching the thermal equilibrium, it is when it will initiate the process of heat exchange with the environment.

When developing the conjugate to drive a mechanical load coupled to its axis, the electric motor will have an increase in temperature. This temperature must not exceed the value defined by the insulation class. To determine this elevation will require the development of a thermal model.

Magnetic Core and Stator Static Winding

The magnetic core is charged with raising the magnetic flux of the field caused by the coils and thereby forming electromagnets at its poles. In direct current electric motors, these poles are fixed, as in alternating current motors the field generated is the rotating field.

The stator is designed with several thin blades of magnetic material, pressed to construct the stator assembly. The magnetic materials of the motor cores must have high saturation induction, allowing the motor to work at a high magnetic flux point, always below the saturation point.

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The space designated for the coils is called a groove, and the structures that will constitute the poles themselves are the teeth. In the stator winding, copper coils are wound around the stator teeth, and these windings are three-phase or single-phase induction motors.

The coils are separated from each other through a varnish layer, insulated from the groove, fastened with an insulated string, and again covered with an additional layer of varnish. They are installed in such a way that the ligature of the three phases can be completed in star, triangle or other tensions.

Electric Motors and their Rotation

It is in RPM that the rotation of an electric motor is expressed, RPM – revolutions per minute represent the amount of turns in the motor shaft.

Each engine is specific to its task and has its own characteristics of power, shape and size. The speed of rotation of the electric motor is defined by two factors, the frequency of the AC source and the number of magnetic poles of the motor.

The frequency of the mains that the electric motor is connected directly influences the rotation of the motor. In the frequency of 50Hz the synchronous rotation will be 3,000 RPM and in the frequency of 60Hz with 2 poles the synchronous rotation is 3,600 RPM.

The essential feature for the operation of electric motors SealMaster CRSTF-PN22 in appliances is the rotation and this may seem obvious when we observe the operation of fans, blenders, blenders, but it appears disguised in the washing machines or electric windows of automobiles.

Rotating motion can cause the process to advance, swing or return as needed and it can rotate clockwise and counterclockwise as required.

Relays

In electric motors, relays are the essential components of electric charge manipulation, as they allow the combination of logic in the control, as well as the separation of power and command circuits.

The most common are made up of a housing with five terminals. The terminals (1,2) correspond to the excitation coil. The terminal (3) is the input, and the terminals (4,5) are equivalent to the normally closed (NF) and normally open (NO) contacts, respectively.

A fundamental peculiarity of the relays is that the voltage at the terminals (1,2) can be 5 Vdc, 12 Vdc or 24 Vdc, while simultaneously the terminals (3,4,5) can work with 110 Vac or 220 Vac.

That is, there is no physical contact between the drive terminals and the working terminals. This definition allowed the advent of two circuits in an electrical panel:

Control circuit: this is the interface with the operator of the machine or instrument and, in the meantime, operates with low currents (up to 10 A) and / or low voltages. NJ 406 MA/C3P

Power Circuit: this is the circuit where the loads to be connected are located, such as motors, heating resistors, among others. In this can circulate electric currents of the order of 10 A or more, and reach tensions of up to 760 V.

CONTROL OF ELECTRIC MOTORS – Stop and Direction of rotation

Shutdown – In certain applications there is a need to use a rapid motor and load deceleration. When disconnected from the power line, the electric motor uses a rotation reversing device with the motor still running. Stopping or shutting down the mains motor takes place through a relay preventing the motor from breaking in the opposite direction. In the case of synchronous electric motors, dynamic braking is used.

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Direction or Direction of Rotation – Most motors (except some, such as single-phase motors such as shaded pole and repulsion motors) can be used in both directions of rotation depending only on adequate control to achieve this . The direction of rotation of the axis of a DC motor is imposed by both the north-south polarity of the field flux and by the direction of the armature current. To reverse the direction of rotation, simply change the polarity of the DC source that feeds the field winding or DC source that feeds the armature, this in the case of independent excitation.

Universal Engine – Your Operation and Applications

Several home appliances, especially kitchen appliances, and various portable tools use another type of single-phase motor, called universal, whose operating principle is completely different from the induction motor.

The name of the universal electric motor comes from the fact that it can operate under both AC and DC power. In fact it is a DC series motor.

It is an electric motor of variable speed, with low speeds for large torque and high speeds for small loads.

The starting conjugate is also high and therefore is commonly used in small appliances, such as electric drills and sanders, requiring high torque, and in blenders, vacuum cleaners and centrifugal pumps, which require high speed.

They are usually manufactured for powers up to 3/4 HP. For powers above a few CV, these motors do not work very well in alternating current, therefore, a great friction occurs in the brushes what results in a decrease of the yield and the factor of power.

The stator is a set of protruding poles with coils wound on them and the rotor consists of a winding distributed in grooves and connected in series with the coils of the stator (armature). https://www.mrosupply.com/electrical/extension-cords-reels/cord-reels/2208276_lg3050-143-9_reelcraft/

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Discover the power and application of the electric motor or also known as universal motor

The universal motor, also called an electric motor, has some characteristics that relate to its speed, voltage frequency, power and application.

It is common for the electric motor or universal motor has power that is in the house of ¾ horsepower. This value allows the electric motor to be used in sanders, drills, vacuum cleaners, blenders and polishers. The electric motor power can be increased since the electric motor design suffers change. pt061150010ls

The universal motor that has a lower power and that is the house of the 1/20 hp is easily found in hair dryers, sewing machines and shavers.

Both the universal motor as a DC series motor have a building and the same operating principle as the universal motor receives food alternating current and changes the current direction and that causes the variation occurs in the field of both stator as the rotor.

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Electric motor operates in parallel field always constant speed

Is in operation five types of electric DC motors which are: permanent magnet motor, the field engine series, parallel field motor (shunt), excitation motor independent motor and composite (compound).

The electric motor EWDM3554T parallel field has field coils which are connected in parallel to the armature. Thus, these various coils formed in the conductor turns which is thinner than the electric motor field series.

The gauge driver vary according to the power of the electric motor, but the gauge will be sufficient therefore support the shunt field current which results in an operation speed of the electric motor always constant.

With the help of electromagnetic action, the conjugate will be proportional to both current as the flow. When starting, the current in the armature should have a limit that will be the source voltage that controls and this reduces the torque and the recommended is that the engine does not commence unless it receives the full load.